Arza Fortress

Original name

Arza Fortress

Geographic Area

Mirišta, Montenegro

Reference Project

Integreted survey strategies for the documentation of Venetian fortification in the eastern Mediterranean basin

Site description

The entrance to the Bay of Kotor is bordered, in a north-west direction, by the Vittaglina peninsula and the small peninsula of Prevlaka, while to the south-east by the Lustizza peninsula. Then, you enter the Gulf of Castelnuovo. The complex of fortifications, positioned at the entrance of the Gulf, represented the first defensive system for the safeguarding of commercial ports. To protect the strait are the Fort of Punta d'Arza, the island-fortress of Mamula, and the Fort of Punta d'Ostro. The Fort of Punta d'Arza, built between 1850 and 1853 during the Austro-Hungarian domination, consists of a circular tower flanked by a body with a distributive function. The tower, articulated on three levels, has a large annular vaulted room in which the artillery was placed. The first two levels of the Fort are regularly punctuated by openings and passages that guaranteed total coverage of the shooting view on the southern side of the entrance to the Bocche. On the top, the platform was set up with a third level outside and the sloping roofing mantle had the function of a valley for the rainwater collected in a cistern placed in the center of the tower.


Promoted by
The project was developed following the winning of a tender from the Veneto Region set up for the conservation and enhancement of Venetian culture abroad.

Sandro Parrinello

Proposing Subjects
University of Pavia
University of Florence
University of Bergamo
University of Verona
University of Montenegro
Municipality of Verona

State Archives of Venice
University of Split
INFN Florence
INFN Milan

Survey Activities

Terrestrial Laser Scanner
Chiara Malusardi, Dante Certomà, Alberto Pettineo

UAVs Photogrammetry
Francesca Picchio, Sandro Parrinello

Marco Morandotti, Anna Dell'Amico, Silvia La Placa

Post production Activities

2D Drawings
The drawings was created by Researchers, PhD Student and Student of the University of Pavia

Point Cloud model
The model was created by Researchers, PhD Students and Studens of the University of Pavia

  • Gallery
  • 3D Model

Documentation Methodology

The case study of Montenegro, its territory, the fortifications, and the location of its fortresses made it possible to face significant experimentation of survey technologies. This experimentation has undergone variations, case by case, to limit instrumental errors as much as possible. The Austrian fort of Punta d’Arza is an architecture immersed in natural space, built to protect the entrance to the Gulf of Boka Kotorska, with a circular planimetric development. Full freedom of movement around the fort allowed operators to scan with TLS instrumentation in the most effective way, reducing the distance between scan and scan near the openings, for greater data richness.

The use of the FARO CAM2 150 S Laser Scanner, which also allows the acquisition of colorimetric data, has made it possible to obtain a complete point cloud from the point of view of returning the material data. The aerial photogrammetric survey operations, essential for the acquisition of data relating to the upper part of the building, were carried out by setting a point of interest and flying with the DJI Phantom 4 Pro drone. The photogrammetric data, obtained thanks to UAV systems, were processed through the Agisoft Metashape software. An autonomous model was generated for each fortress acquired, which can be viewed and orientated as a three-dimensional model.


Parrinello, S., Picchio, F., (a cura di) (2019). Dalmazia e Montenegro. Le fortificazioni Venete nel bacino del Mediterraneo Orientale. Procedure per la conoscenza e la Documentazione Digitale del Patrimonio Storico Fortificato.. Di Sandro Parrinello; Francesca Picchio. p. 1-176, Pavia: Pavia University Press, ISBN: 9788869521379