San Michele Basilica

Original name

San Michele Basilica

Geographic Area

Pavia, Italy

Reference Project

The documentation of San Michele Basilica. 3D survey and Documentation for decay monitoring of the external fronts

Site description

The San Michele Basilica is a very complex architecture. The church is the result of stratified construction phases and many sacred functions, to be read within the millenary history of the city of Pavia. The complex today, freed from the constructive substrate of the surroundings that made it difficult to read, now includes what remains of the rectory and the service buildings behind it. The Basilica is considered the greatest example of Pavese Romanesque architecture. It is characterized by the very unique decorative plastic apparatus of the sandstone facade. The façade, with a gabled termination, is framed by massive buttresses and tripartite by elegant polystyle pilasters corresponding to the internal naves. The Latin cross plan is marked by massive alternating cruciform pillars which support cross vaults. Above the minor aisles open the galleries lit by windows. The very protruding transept on the rectangular perimeter, and provided with an autonomous facade on the north side, is barrel vaulted and on the intersection the dome is inserted externally closed by the octagonal lantern decorated by a loggia similar to that of the crowning of the facade and apse. Under the presbytery there is the crypt that is divided into three naves. The most important changes were made by the interventions of the fifteenth century. on the vaults of the cleristory and the restorations of the late nineteenth century, aimed at highlighting the parts considered Romanesque of the church.
Construction period: end of the century. X - second quarter century. XI

Credits

Promoted by
The 2020 project was conducted for the restoration project based on the indications of Superintendency of Archaeology, Fine Arts and Landscape - Milan

Years of Project
2020: Survey of the south facade and analysis of the St. George tile on the main facade. 2016-2017: Main project of Course of Architectural Survey & Restoration, Universiy of Pavia. Professor: Sandro Parrinello. 2013: International Workshop and conference UNESCO archaeological sites: experiences of investigation. Organizing Commitee: Stefano Bertocci, Sandro Parrinello, Reveka Vital. Cfr: bibliography workshop.
06/06/2013: "La conoscenza della Basilica del San Michele per la sua valorizzazione" congress in collaboration with "Il Bel San Michele" association - Pavia (Italy)
Credits: C. Achille, S. Parrinello, A. Spalla.

Coordinator
Marco Morandotti
Sandro Parrinello

Partnership
UNIPV, University of Pavia
Associazione "Il Bel San Michele" O.d.v.

Survey Activities

Laser Scanner
Elisabetta Doria
Pietro Becherini
Francesca Picchio

3D Scanner Artec Eva
Alessia Miceli
Hangjun Fu

UAVs Photogrammetry
Francesca Picchio

Terrestrial Photogrammetry
Alessia Miceli
Alberto Pettineo
Francesca Picchio
Architectural Survey & Restoration (2016-2017), Universiy of Pavia. Professor: Sandro Parrinello.
Students and partecipant of the Internation Workshop (2013)

Photo
Francesca Picchio
Elisabetta Doria
Alessia Miceli
Student of the course of Architectural Survey & Restoration (2016-2017), Universiy of Pavia. Professor: Sandro Parrinello.

Post production Activities

Laser Scanner Post-Production
Elisabetta Doria
Pietro Bechierini
Student of the course of Architectural Survey & Restoration (2016-2017), Universiy of Pavia. Professor: Sandro Parrinello.

Photogrammetry Post-Production
Elisabetta Doria
Alessia Miceli
Student of the course of Architectural Survey & Restoration (2016-2017), Universiy of Pavia. Professor: Sandro Parrinello.

2D Drawings
Elisabetta Doria
Silvia La Placa
Student of the course of Architectural Survey & Restoration (2016-2017), Universiy of Pavia.

St. George tile historical reconstructions
The digital reconstruction work is mainly done by Hangjung Fu.

3D Models of the Facade
Chiara Miatton - Degree Thesis: The facade of san michele. Integrated Survey for the creation of managment models. Year: 2015-2016. Tutor: Sandro Parrinello, Massimiliano Lo Turco, Francesca Picchio.
Students, Tutors and Researchers as Francesca Picchio, Filippo Fantini, Sara Bua of the International Workshop and conference: UNESCO archaeological sites (2013)

  • Gallery
  • Point Cloud
  • 3D Model
  • St. George tile 3D model
  • Portal 3D Model

 

 

 

 

Documentation Methodology

The research project concerning the Basilica has developed since 2013, alternating up to nowadays still in progress. In 2013 the research process began with the international workshop within the UNESCO archaeological sites: experiences of investigation program. Organizing (Commitee: Stefano Bertocci, Sandro Parrinello, Reveka Vital.). Since 2015 it has been the subject of a degree thesis on models for the description of architecture (see Miatton, 2017) and a topic of interest of the Survey & Restoration course of the University of Pavia held by Professor Sandro Parrinello. Starting from 2020, the survey and documentation project of the entire southern front of the Basilica has begun, at the request of the Milan Superintendency.

The Basilica was surveyed through the use of Laser Scanner instruments such as TLS Faro CAM2 S150 to cover the building. In addition to the laser scanner survey, a UAV and ground-based photographic acquisition campaign was carried out with Structure From Motion shooting technique for the generation of three-dimensional models.
The laser models (laser point cloud) and the SfM models (photogrammetry point clouds) were joined together to obtain a reliable general model showing both the facades and the roofs of the Basilica. From reliable models it was possible to obtain reliable 2D vector drawings. The vector drawings serve both as documentation and as a starting point for planning future interventions and for the estimated management of maintenance.

The project relating to the tile of San Giorgio e il Drago deals with the digital reconstruction of something that has been lost over time. The tile was studied from historical drawings to understand the original design. Historical designs were superimposed on the current model to recreate the original geometries. The survey of the current tile was carried out with different methods for making comparisons. Models from Laser Scanner, from photogrammetry and the Artec 3D Eva were used. Once digitized, the current and original state model can be 3D printed.

Bibliography

Picchio F. (2020) “acquisition protocols for uav photogrammetric data. Comparison in methodological sfm procedures from architectural till urban scale”. In drones - systems of information on cultural heritage. For a spatial and social investigation

International Workshop and conference UNESCO archaeological sites: experiences of investigation. Organizing Commitee: Stefano Bertocci, Sandro Parrinello, Reveka Vital. DAda LAB website

Miatton C., Parrinello S. (2017) Modelli descrittivi per la gestione degli interventi di manutenzione sulla facciata della basilica di San Michele a Pavia. In: Empler T, Proceedings of workshop 3D modeling & BIM. Progettazione, design, proposte per la ricostruzione, Roma Apr 2017. Dei Tipografia del Genio Civile, Roma, pp 260–277. ResearchGate