Catena Gospe od Andjela


Original name

Catena Gospe od Andjela

Geographic Area

Gornji Lepetane, Montenegro

Reference Project

Integreted survey strategies for the documentation of Venetian fortification in the eastern Mediterranean basin

Site description

The Verige strait is the gateway to the Gulf of Risan and the Gulf of Kotor. Strategically it represented a focal point for coastal defense, both for Risan and Perast and for Kotor. The orographic conformation of the strait made it possible to install, at the end of the canal, a chain. This one regulated the transit of boats towards the Gulf of Kotor. The system was equipped with fortified structures which, together with other towers and small fortresses, arranged on the crest of the hill above, collaborated in the defense of the bay. During the Austro-Hungarian domination, a complex of forts and watchtowers was built on the eastern side of the inlet, where a small church already existed, to support what must have been the closure system of the bay. The structure of the current church of Gospe od Andjela, in its articulation, follows the course of the cliff, relating to the architectural complex, close to the sea, and the coastal road. The small church currently visible is composed of three bodies that develop longitudinally and a small pier that connects it to the sea. It was built in a point that is clearly visible from different points of the village, and becomes a reference point for the orientation of the territory. The church has free sides, the main body of the church is organized according to the principle of the "quadruple octagon", and the other completes a slender octahedral bell tower. The main meaning of the tents is underlined by small domes placed at the corners of the temple cube, on the apse of the altar and by a small refectory. The construction of the temple was financed by Ivan Agafonovich Suslov (1838-1900). In the Vvedenskaya church, the ecclesiastical service of Fr. Nikolai Konyukhov, now counted among the new holy martyrs. The church was closed in the late 1920s and became a warehouse for the storage of agricultural products, which was left abandoned.


The project was developed following the winning of a tender from the Veneto Region set up for the conservation and enhancement of Venetian culture abroad.

Sandro Parrinello

Proposing Subjects
University of Pavia
University of Florence
University of Bergamo
University of Verona
University of Montenegro
Municipality of Verona

State Archives of Venice
University of Split
INFN Florence
INFN Milan

Survey Activities

Laser Scanner
Chiara Malusardi, Dante Certomà

UAVs Photogrammetry
Francesca Picchio, Alberto Pettineo

Marco Morandotti, Silvia La Placa, Anna Dell'Amico

Post production Activities

2D Drawings
The drawings was created by Researchers, PhD Student and Student of the University of Pavia

Point Cloud model
The model was created by Researchers, PhD Students and Studens of the University of Pavia

  • Gallery
  • 3D Model

Documentation Methodology

The survey campaign conducted in the territories of the State da Mar in Dalmatia and Montenegro included the extensive application of Laser Scanner instrumentation for the production of reliable point clouds. The TLS technology allows to generate a database corresponding to the state of conservation of the buildings from which to produce two-dimensional and three-dimensional descriptive documents and the development of specific reflections regarding their conservation and enhancement.

The structure insists on several levels, following the course of the land that slowly slopes towards the sea. The small church was documented as part of the research project "Integrated survey strategies for the documentation of Venetian fortification in the eastern Mediterranean basin" because, from its strategic position, the sea strait leading to the last bay was defended. The volumes of the Gospe or Andjela chain are articulated on different levels of altitude, imposing a type of laser recovery bound by the correct visibility of each surface concerning the various positions assumed by the instrument (Laser Scanner FARO CAM2 150S).

The shooting methodology envisaged a "cascade" acquisition, from top to bottom (i.e. from street level to sea level), to maintain control over the number of surfaces acquired, the formation of shadow cones, and how to integrate the data from each position while going down in altitude. The operators also carried out video and photographic recordings, both from the ground and from the drone. The aerial photogrammetric survey operations were carried out by setting a point of interest and flying plan with the DJI Phantom 4 Pro drone and with the DJI Mavik2 Pro.


Parrinello, S., Picchio, F., (a cura di) (2019). Dalmazia e Montenegro. Le fortificazioni Venete nel bacino del Mediterraneo Orientale. Procedure per la conoscenza e la Documentazione Digitale del Patrimonio Storico Fortificato.. Di Sandro Parrinello; Francesca Picchio. p. 1-176, Pavia: Pavia University Press, ISBN: 9788869521379