KanliKula and Sea Fortifications

Original name

KanliKula Fortress

Geographic Area

Herceg Novi, Montenegro

Reference Project

Integreted survey strategies for the documentation of Venetian fortification in the eastern Mediterranean basin.

Site description

The city of Herceg Novi is located between the mountain of Orjen, the highest point of the Dinara range, and the entrance to the Boka Kotorska. The succession of different hegemonies on the territory has profoundly marked the urban layout and the defensive system. The Kanli Kula Fortress, the Sea Fort, and the Spanish Fort formed the defensive core of the ancient town. In particular, the Kanli Kula Fort and the Sea Fort protected the gulf on which the town overlooked. Differently, the Spanish Fort, thanks to its elevated position concerning the urban center, was configured as a control point on the surrounding area, guaranteeing protection from attacks that could have come from the hinterland.
Kanli Kula Fortress, from the Turkish "bloody tower", was erected in the northern part of the old city. The current confirmation of the Fortress dates back to the period in which the city was under Turkish rule, between 1482 and 1687. Different masonry works and the presence of numerous galleries testify how, during the Venetian period, the Fortress adapted to the various war requirements, including the development of firearms. In the past, access to the Fortress was only from the south side through a long staircase connecting with the old city. Today the Kanli Kula Fortress also has access from the northern side, testifying to the various transformations that took place during the Austrian domination.


Promoted by
The project was developed following the winning of a tender from the Veneto Region set up for the conservation and enhancement of Venetian culture abroad.

Sandro Parrinello

Proposing Subject
UNIPV, University of Pavia
UNIFI, University of Florence
UNIBG, University of Bergamo
UNIVR, University of Verona
UCG, University of Montenegro
Municipality of Verona

State Archives of Venice
University of Split
INFN Florence
INFN Milan

Survey Activities

Mobile Laser Scanner
Anna Dell'Amico

UAVs Photogrammetry
Francesca Picchio, Sandro Parrinello

Silvia La Placa

Post production Activities

2D Drawings
The drawings were created by Researchers, PhD Student and Student of the University of Pavia

Point Clouds and Models
Models and Point Clouds were created by Researchers, PhD Student and Student of the University of Pavia.

  • Gallery
  • Point Cloud

Stay Tuned!

Documentation Methodology

The punctual survey campaign with mobile technology saw the documentation of the fortresses of Kanli Kula and Forte Mare (14th century), which, about 500 meters away from each other, constituted the defensive system of the city of Herceg Novi between the XVI and XVII century.

For acquisition with KAARTA Mobile Stencil Laser Scanner instrumentation for both complexes, the survey operations were divided into external wall perimeter, internal environments, internal wall perimeter. The different levels of altitude have been distinguished according to the routes inside the fortress. Detection circuits were also carried out at a wider range, wanting to ensure correct insertion in the context of architectural works. For the acquisition of the external perimeter, given the height of the wall, it was necessary to carry out the same circuit with two different inclinations of the instrument. For the internal portions, on the other hand, there are structured layers of concentric paths: all accessible areas have been covered, starting from the maximum walkable width and proceeding inwards. Particular attention was given to the internal/external connection points for the identification of homologous points when merging the individual registrations. 50 shots were taken for the case of Kanli Kula and 37 for that of Forte Mare, for a total of 2 hours of survey activities in the field.

The documentation of the forts through UAV systems made it possible to obtain a global 3D model, valid on a territorial and landscape scale, comparable and integrable with mobile laser systems (MLS). This latest experimentation, as it fielded two instruments related to fast-survey (Mobile Laser Scanner and Drones), proved to be particularly effective, allowing, following the integration of the two databases, to offer a metrically reliable digital database of point clouds. architectural features of a considerable planimetric extension.


Picchio, F., De Marco, R., Dell’Amico, A., Doria, E., Galasso, F., La Placa, S., Miceli, A. (2020). Procedure di analisi e modellazione urbana per la gestione dei centri storici. Betlemme, Solikamsk, Cattaro e Santo Domingo. Paesaggio Urbano, 2, 103 – 115. ResearchGate

Parrinello, S., La Placa, S. (2020). Ricostruire la memoria dello Stato da Mar attraverso un percorso di conoscenza, documentazione e disegno/Rebuilding the Memory of the State da Mar through a path of knowledge, documentation and drawing. In Arena A., Arena M., Brandolino R.G., Colistra D., Ginex G., Mediati D., Nucifora S., Raffa P. (a cura di). Connettere. Un disegno per annodare e tessere. Atti del 42° Convegno Internazionale dei Docenti delle Discipline della Rappresentazione/Connecting. Drawing for weaving relationships. Proceedings of the 42th International Conference of Representation Disciplines Teachers. 2533-2550. ResearchGate

Parrinello, S., Picchio, F. (a cura di) (2019). Dalmazia e Montenegro. Le fortificazioni Venete nel bacino del Mediterraneo Orientale. Procedure per la conoscenza e la Documentazione Digitale del Patrimonio Storico Fortificato. Pavia: Pavia University Press